Book Review - City-State Coins of Ancient India

Rating: 4/5
Authors: Girish Sharma, Indubala Sharma, Dhawal Sharma
Editor: Dhawal Sharma
Language: English (U.S.)
Edition: Kindle Edition (e-book)
Year of Publication: 2020
Publisher: Numismatic Research Trust, Indore (India)
Seller: [Click this link for purchase] 
Price: INR 799/-

Book Review by Dr. Nilaish 

The book 'CITY-STATE COINS OF ANCIENT INDIA' is a well thought plot laid by Shri Girish Sharma many years ago when he first started collecting Ancient Coins of India. In his book he refers, that even collection was kept for him in boxes by his parents and forefathers! Indeed a great untold story which needs a subtle audience.

The book is divided into twelve chapters, and starts with a Message from the Authors. Further, he describes the prelude to this writing and experiences of many years of collecting these magnificent coins. In this review, I will try to be neutral and there is no conflict of interest.

The Chapter 1 starts wi…

A rare coin of Pratisthana

Fig. 1: Pratisthana, Lead unit, circa 200 B.C.E.  Obverse: Female/Male Deity, Brahmi legend: PaTiThane (means Sanskrit word: Pratisthana)  Reverse: Tree in Railing, arched hill and Swastik.  Find Location: Uklana, Hisar District (Haryana) 50 kms from Agratya Site. Weight: Not disclosed. 
LEGEND: "Pratishthana was built by King Ila - who was the king of Bahlika, strayed into Shiva's forest during his hunting trip and was cursed to become a woman by Shiva. By praying Shiva's consort Parvati, he managed to stay as man and woman alternatively every month. He would not remember events of one stage in the other. When he was a woman, he married Budha (Mercury, one of the nine planets the 'Navagrahas') through whom he had a son (Pururavas). Budha helped Ila to attain his former self by pleasing Shiva through 'Ashwamedha Yagna' (Horse sacrifice). After leaving Budha, Ila left Bahlika and established the city Pratishthana from where he ruled for long. After him, Pururava…

Unusual Round Shape Strato I Bronze Coin

King Strato I Bronze Quadruple 
Ruler: Strato I, Indo-Greek King  Dated: Circa 125-110 B.C.E.  Denomination: Bronze Quadruple  Obverse: Bust of Apollo right, Greek legend around: BAΣIΛEΩΣ EΠI ΦANOYΣ ΣΩTHPOΣ / ΣTPATΩNOΣ. or Jakobsson (2007: 9): Agathokleia (Sister) portrait of Straton/Epiphanes?  and greek legend around.  Reverse: Bow and quiver with strap, Kharoshthi legend around: maharajasa pracachasa tratarasa / stratasa.  Weight: 9.62 grams.  Diameter: 24 mm  Die axis: 12h Attributions: MIG 335b, Bop 32B.  Note: This bronze coin is in round shape which was unusual in his issues. The bow and arrow depicts Greek god Apollo. A bust of Apollo exists in the Collection of Vatican Gallery, Rome which depicts Apollo with bow and arrow. The bust has similar appearance [see below]: 
Head of the Apollo Belvedere.  Vatican Gallery, Rome.  Image Courtesy: D. Anderson [John Andrew & Son, Sc.]
The full-length statue of the Apollo god known as the Apollo Belvedere as seen at Vatican Gallery.  The namin…

Criticisms on my previous article on Kushan Kings Silver Patterns

This article is a result of discussions happened in Facebook groups:

Remarks on Critical Review of the Article 

Facebook Link (Indian Coin Society Ancient World) 
Post on my wall link (Positive comments were made so not included here). 

Public Debate on Views and Comments of the Experts: 

P.S. Only noteworthy comments are discussed with regard to the criticism obtained. Let me first assure all that there is no malice intention in writing the previous article nor that I desire to sell the items to anyone! This article was written based on the curiosity developed from the subject coins and few literary evidences published before 1960 which suggested that I shall use the word, 'Pattern Coins' which deemed fit for the case. Let us first review the comments made by the experts. 
Dr Shailen Bhandare (First Comment):  "These coins are not "patterns" but white metal cores made in 19th century to dupe collectors, particularly British officers for whom these were a collectibl…

Tiberius Denarius and Tribute Penny

This work contains in-text citations.

By Dr. Nilaish (Sometime Fellow of Royal Numismatic Society, London)

There are two citations from the Bible written in 1611 which loosely translated the word ''denarius'' to "Penny" as English Penny of King James was a small silver coin.

Mark 12:14: Should we pay them, or should we not?” And they came and said to him, “Teacher, we know that you are sincere, and show deference to no one; for you do not regard people with partiality, but teach the way of God in accordance with truth. Is it lawful to pay taxes to the emperor, or not?

Mark 12:15: ..But knowing their hypocrisy, he said to them, “Why are you putting me to the test? Bring me a denarius and let me see it.”

The Greek text uses the word dēnarion [1] and was misinterpreted in the Bible. However, reigning monarch during Jesus' life was Tiberius [16 Nov. 42 BCE - 16 March 37 AD] who may have issued orders to crucify him. The concerned act in the Bible refers to use…

Silver Pattern Coins of KUSHAN KINGS

DISCLAIMER: This article is based on the ancient stylistic examination of the known coins of Kushan Kings. A more strong evidence will be further added for conclusion in the favour of these coins. The Stylistic Examination is a careful examination and comparison of subject coin to the known coin of that type. 
(Article Published by The Numismatic Society of Calcutta, 22nd Annual Conference - Souvenir) Happening in conjunction with the 102nd Annual Conference, The Numismatic Society of India.
Dates: 19th, 20th and 21st December 2019. Venue: Haldiram Banquet Hall, 24 Balleygunj Park, Kolkata.

Silver Pattern Coins of Kushan Kings 

by Dr. Nilaish [Email: nilaish86[at]]

The Kushan Empire was formed on the remains of Indo-Greek Kingdom by Yuezhi-Chi (Chinese Tribe) in the Bactrian region in the early 1st Century A.D. The empire bounded the present countries like, Afghanistan and northern part of Indian Subcontinent. The inscriptions of  Kanishka I are found in Saketa (Ayodhya), Sarna…

Darius I Drachm used in Spice Trade Circa 200 B.C.

Darius I, Kingdom of Persia, 2nd Century B.C. 
Kingdom: Persia (Central Asia, now Iran).
Ruler: Darius I,
Date: Circa mid of 2nd Century B.C.
Metal: AR, Silver.
Denomination: Drachm,
Weight: 3.63 grams,
Diameter: 16 mm.
Attributions: Alram 551, Mitchner ACW 739-740, SGCv2 6195.

Obverse: Bust of bearded king right, wearing satrapa bonnet adorned with eagle; crescent on rear,

Reverse: Stylized fire altar with structure in the form of stepped battlements; winged Ahura-Mazda above. King standing on left, bird perched on standard, right. Aramaic legend.

P.S.This coin was struck on a very high relief and is lighter with bulges. The coins of the kingdom of Persis (Persia) are difficult to attribute because of the very crude and difficult Arameic inscriptions. This coin might be attributed to Darius I, while Mitchiner attributes these to Darius I. A number of trading routes, connecting Europe to China are called the Silk Road. These long distance trades were taking place since 1st century B.C till the 1…

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